Also See: Editor's Note, Endorsements, and Purchase Information
In an increasingly globalized and interconnected world, societies have become less resilient with respect to water resources. Long-term developments such as population growth, urbanization, increasing standards of living and related consumption, natural resource degradation and pollution as well as the impacts of climate change, have resulted in numerous impacts on water resources. As a result, their availability in the long term is at the risk of becoming unsustainable. Decision making on how to manage, allocate and use them has become progressively complex as diversity of views on what should be sustained and how, and over what period of time, differ across sectors and actors, and vary over time.
Resolving Water Conflicts Workbook focuses on social and environmental sustainability. It is rich in examples and reflections. It analyses in depth how institutions, legal and policy instruments, as important as they are in terms of governance, are many times slow to respond, with the consequent negative impacts on disadvantaged populations. The case studies are robust and present in detail short- and long-term effects of human activities and institutional responses on specific sectors of society and on the environment on which their livelihoods depend.
The text transmits the urgency to develop frameworks to manage water resources that are more comprehensive such as river basin management and integrated water resources management. As certain as this is, these paradigms have not delivered so far what has been expected from them because of political, policy and administrative constraints in most of the world. Time has come for institutions to identify the advantages of these paradigms in practice, the reasons why their implementation has been hampered, and either addressed the concerns or change the paradigms to more practical ones.
Finally, the workbook emphasizes the relevance of using water conflict management frameworks to build trust, improve understanding of common problems and possible alternatives as well as encourage collaboration. It is rightly argued that this is essential to move forward and transform conflicts into opportunities for cooperation. Approaches that are more comprehensive and that take into consideration broader aspects of development are needed.
Dr. Cecilia Tortajada,
Professor in practice, School of Interdisciplinary Studies,
University of Glasgow, UK
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION by Lynette de Silva
WATER: THE IRREPLACEABLE RESOURCE
A River and Its Tributaries
The Geopolitics of Water
The Challenges of a Rapidly Changing Climate
THE BOOK'S STRUCTURE
CHAPTER 1: THE CONSEQUENCE OF A DECISION AND THE CASE OF THE HIGH ASWAN DAM by Chris Maser
THE INVIOLABLE RULES OF DECISION MAKING
Rule 1—Everything Is A Relationship
Between People and the Environment
Between People in the Present and Those of the Future
Rule 2—All Relationships Are All Inclusive and Productive of An Outcome
Rule 3—The Only True Investment Is Energy from Sunlight
Rule 4—All Relationships Involve a Transfer of Energy
Rule 5—All Systems Are Based on Composition, Structure, and Function
Rule 6—All Relationships Have One or More Trade-offs
Rule 7—All Systems Have Cumulative Effects, Lag Periods, And Thresholds
Rule 8—Change Is An Irreversible Process of Eternal Becoming
Rule 9—Systemic Change is Based on Self-Organized Criticality
Rule 10—Dynamic Disequilibrium Rules All Systems
Rule 11—Success or Failure Lies in the Interpretation of An Event
Rule 12—People Must Be Equally Informed if They Are to Function, As a Truly Democratic Society
Rule 13—We Must Consciously Limit Our "Wants"
Rule 15—Nature, Environmental/Cultural Wisdom, and Human Well-Being Are Paramount
Rule 16—Every Legal Citizen Deserves the Right to Vote
Rule 17—This Present Moment, the Here and Now, Is All We Ever Have
THE ASWAN HIGH DAM—A CASE STUDY ILLUSTRATING THE IRREVERSIBLE CONSEQUENCES OF A SINGLE DECISION
CHAPTER 2 WATER CONFLICT TRANSFORMATION by Lynette de Silva
Degrees of Remedy
Transformative processes and examples
CHAPTER 3: EVOLVING WATER GOVERNANCE UNDER UNITED STATES LAW by Holly v. Campbell
SYNOPSIS OF WATER GOVERNANCE IN THE UNITED STATES
Legal Rights to the Use of Surface and Groundwater
The Focus and Purpose of the U.S. Clean Water Act
The Watershed Approach Framework Milestone
Elaborating an Advanced Watershed Approach through 2030—Three Pillars of Sustainability
The Chesapeake Bay Watershed
CHAPTER 4: DIFFERENT SYSTEMS, COMMON CONFLICTS by Holly V. Campbell and Liliana Pimentel
WATER MANAGEMENT IN BRAZIL
CASE STUDIES FROM BRAZIL
The Water Crisis in the Sãn Paulo Metropolitan Region (2014-2016)
Main Results and Lessons Learned
The Water Crisis in the Federal District (2016-2018)
The Water Crisis in the São Paulo Metropolitan Region (2014-2016)
Main Results and Lessons Learned
WATER MANAGEMENT IN THE UNITED STATES
Florida v Georgia
Main Results, Lessons Learned, and Lessons Suggesting Design of New Approaches
Mexican Water Treaty of 1944
Main Results and Lessons Learned
CHAPTER 5: RIGHTS OF NATURE: THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WATER AND PEOPLE by Cameron La Follette
HOW WILL THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN NATURE AND HUMANS WORK?
Case Study: New Zealand's Whanganui River
Case Study: Grant Township and Highland Township, Pennsylvania
The Legal System and the Rights of Nature
MOVING BEYOND RELATIONSHIPS OF DESTRUCTION WITH RIVERS
Local and Worldwide River Protection
If I Am the River and the River is Me: Water Conflict and Ecological Governance
QUESTIONS AND EXERCISES
CHAPTER 6: INTERTRIBAL FISHING CONFLICTS AND FEDERAL OBSTRUCTION IN OREGON by David G. Lewis
Contemporary Water Issues
Finding Good Faith in a Middle Ground
Why would the other tribes need to fish at Willamette falls?
CHAPTER 7: THE ROLE OF WOMEN IN WATER MANAGEMENT IN THE DESCHUTES RIVER BASIN OF OREGON (USA) AND THE FERGHANA VALLEY OF CENTRAL ASIA by Jaclyn Best and Jahan Taganova
DEFINING CONFLICT AND WATER CONFLICTS
Is the water sector a man's domain?
Where Are the Women, and Why do We Need Them? A Lack of Data and Representation
INVISIBLE WOMEN OF THE DESCHUTES RIVER BASIN
Geography of the Deschutes River Basin
Styles of Water Management in the American West and the Deschutes River Basin: Shifting Away from the Masculine
DO WOMEN FORGE PEACE IN THE FERGHANA VALLEY?
Water Management in the Ferghana Valley: From Kingdoms to Independence from the Soviet Union
Where are the Women? Emancipation of Central Asia's Women
Transboundary Water Conflict Resolution: Whose Domain?
WHAT CAN WE LEARN FROM THE DESCHUTES RIVER BASIN AND FERGHANA VALLEY?
HOW CAN WE MOVE FORWARD TRANSFORMING CONFLICTS USING A GENDERED APPROACH?
CHAPTER 8: WATER INSECURITIES IN TWO AFRICAN AMERICAN COMMUNITIES by Lynette de Silva
THE VANPORT CASE STUDY
The Significance of a Location
Waters Leading Up to that "Horrific Day"
Mapping the Vanport Situation
Relating the water conflict framework to Vanport
THE FLINT CASE STUDY
Where does this leave Flint residents?
Transformative Water Conflict Analysis
Strengthening Water Rights in Flint
QUESTIONS AND EXERCISES
CHAPTER 9: A GLOBAL WATER SOLUTION: AN EXAMPLE OF THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOAL TARGET 6.5 by Melissa McCracken
THE GLOBAL WATER CRISIS
SUSTAINABILITY AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: FOUNDATIONAL CONCEPTS FOR GLOBAL SOLUTIONS
THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOAL FRAMEWORK
Sustainable Development Goal 6 on Water and Sanitation
THE FOUR STAGES OF WATER CONFLICT TRANSFORMATION FRAMEWORK
Indicator 6.5.2 Methodology
Indicator 6.5.2 and the Four Stages of Water Conflict Transformation
CASE STUDY: INDICATOR 6.5.2 AND UGANDA
Background on Uganda's International Shared Waters and Cooperation
Calculating SDG Indicator 6.5.2 for Uganda
Applying the Water Conflict Transformation framework to the Case Study
CHAPTER 10: RELIGIOUS WORLDVIEWS, ENVIRONMENTAL VALUES, AND CONFLICT-MANAGEMENT TRADITIONS by Josiah J. Shaver
Building on Shared Values
Ancient Conflict Management Principles with Modern Applications
Trying to Summarize the Complexity of Religions
NATIVE AMERICAN TRADITIONS
Familial Environmental Ethics
Community Environmental Ethics
Conflict Resolution Traditions of the Native Americans
Peacemaking Circles: Equality and Agreement
Connections to the Four Stages
Reincarnation, Karma and Hindu Environmental Principles
Historical and Modern Hindu Environmental Movements
The Chipko Movement Tree Huggers
Climate Change and Modern Actions
Hindu Conflict Resolution Teachings
The Four Steps of Conflict Progression
Divine Sandals in the Room
Vishnu's Four Stages
Environmental Teachings of the Buddha
Ecological Momentum in Contemporary Buddhism
From the Dalai Lama
Saving Trees by Ordaining Them
The Time to Act is Now: A Buddhist Declaration on Climate Change
Buddhist Nonviolence and Conflict Resolution Paradigm
Extreme Nonviolence: A Teaching
The Story of a War Averted with a Question
The Four Stages and the Four Noble Truths
Environmental Standards from the Qur'an
Words of the Prophet
Islamic Declaration on Climate Change
Conflict Management Dynamics in Islam
Four Stages within Islam
Judeo-Christian Foundations in Environmental Ethics
The Role of Humans: A Question of Interpretation
Biblical Stewardship Environmental Ethics
Further Jewish Teachings on Nature
Jewish Response to Climate Change
Judaism and Conflict Management
Judaism and the Four Stages of Water Conflict Transformation
A Christian View of Nature: Scriptural Foundation with Judaism
Catholic Statements on Environmental Issues
Evangelical Voices on Climate Action
Christian Conflict Resolution Principles
Seven Seeds of Peace: Resolving Conflict with Pastor Rick Warren
The Four Stages Applied to Christianity
CONCLUSION by Lynette de Silva
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Editor's Note for the "CRC Press" Book Series, Social-Environmental Sustainability:
The last winter I snowshoed in the high Cascade Mountains of western Oregon, was in 1958, I was 19 years old. I spent several days and nights living in a cave I made in a bank of snow at the edge of North Santiam Lake. The snow on the lake's surface was 15 feet deep, and the bank was at least five feet deeper. That was 63 years ago. From 1970 to 2019, 11 stations in the snow-telemetry-observation network of Oregon, Washington, and Idaho had decreasing accumulations.
Analyzing 50 years of data shows snow amounts declined 91% at 11 stations in the Northwest during the fall. Snowfall increased 36% at 7 [stations] during the winter, but decreased 64% again during the spring season. This is a region where accumulated winter snowpack in the mountainous areas is essential to the annual water cycle, as snowmelt supplies freshwater that sustains local watersheds through the drier summer months. A growing share of the West has endured worsening droughts since the beginning of the 20th century, straining water supplies and increasing the risk for wildfires.
A 2019 study by researchers at Portland State University found that snowfall frequency in the mountainous Northwest declined the most at low- and mid-elevation sites. The study also projected that by the end of the 21st century, many of the sites in the [snow-telemetry-observation] network will experience more precipitation falling as rain than snow.¹,²
And, it is not just in the northwestern United States. Glaciers are melting all over the world. The Arctic is warming faster than anywhere else on Earth, and Antarctica ice shelves are calving into the ocean. The marine world is changing dramatically, shifting its currents, thereby altering the wind patterns that affect global climate and, consequently, the amount and distribution of rain and snow—the effect of which is the amount of water available for human use throughout different parts of the world.³ These fluctuating changes are not only irreversibly affecting local and regional river basins but also stimulating conflicts among differing social interests and progressively threatening the wellbeing of all generations. In addition to the growing decline of and unpredictability in the amount of available water, the incalculable degradation of water quality through worldwide chemical pollution, among other forms, is accelerating the limitation of good-quality, usable water—increasing the contention over who gets to use what water, how much, and for how long.
The resolution of such a conflict is based on the art of serving people, with disparate points of view, to find enough common ground to ease their fears, sheath their weapons, and listen to one another for their mutual good, which ultimately translates into social-environmental sustainability for all generations. If those in opposition can be helped to understand and move toward the heart of their agreement, the differences entrenched in their quarrel are more easily negotiated. Ultimately, it is necessary for the participants to formulate a shared vision toward which to strive, one that accommodates the personalized perceptions for everyone's long-term benefit. Only then can the barriers among those concerned be dissolved into mutual respect, acceptance, and potential friendship—only then is a conflict truly resolved.
This workbook examines human activities that strain the planet in terms of demands on land, water, energy, and other resources; climate change that forces people to undertake mass movements in search of better living conditions; and humanity's contributions to extinction of species and degradation of ecosystems. The complexities of these challenges are assessed to bring about more sustainable, effective, and efficient water solutions for an improved ecological and socioeconomic future. Given the impacts of climate change and its particular consequences on vulnerable communities, the workbook explores ways in which social difference, political power, and discrimination disproportionately impact nature, as well as women, indigenous peoples of the Americas, and other marginalized communities.
Through a water conflict management framework designed to bolster collaborative skills, the book opens out a middle way to build trust and consensus through enhanced understanding; case study analysis; and hands-on application. An overview of the chapters is provided in the Introduction. Business leaders, policy makers, mediators, and other professionals, as well as academics and university students, can benefit greatly from this book.
1. The Case of Shifting Snow. 2020. Research Brief by Climate Central. https://www.climatecentral.org/news/report-the-case-of-the-shifting-snow (accessed March 2, 2021.)
2. Catalano, A.J., Loikith, P.C., and Aragon, C.M. 2019. Spatiotemporal Variability of Twenty–First–Century Changes in Site–Specific Snowfall Frequency Over the Northwest United States. Geophysical Research Letters, 46 (16):10122–10131.
3. Maser, Chris: Interactions of Land, Ocean and Humans: A Global Perspective. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. 2014. 308 pp.
Chris Maser, Series Editor
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"This helpful workbook teases out some of the deep complexities of water conflicts through rich, wide-ranging, international case studies. Anchored by 'four stages of water conflict transformation,' the authors offer us a useful framework to expand our thinking about and responses to water conflicts. The holistic focus on relationships, culture, governance, and sustainability makes this an especially useful book for practical application as well as academic study."
Dr. Scott Jones,
Co-Director, Mind the Gap Research & Training, Scotland;
Associate Professor of Peace and Conflict Studies, Bjørknes University College, Oslo
"Water physically flows from upstream to downstream, from one farmer to another, and from one country to another. Water also flows conceptually across value systems that differ between individuals, societies and states. The authors of this inciteful volume provide multiple case studies demonstrating how dispute resolution practices, conflict management frameworks, and indigenous knowledge can be used to turn the complexity of water's physical and conceptual flow into healthier outcomes for societies and the water environments on which they depend."
Dr. Mark Giordano,
Professor, Georgetown University School of Foreign Service,
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