Also See:  Editor's Note, Endorsements, and Purchase Information

FOREWORD

In an increasingly globalized and interconnected world, societies have become less resilient with respect to water resources. Long-term developments such as population growth, urbanization, increasing standards of living and related consumption, natural resource degradation and pollution as well as the impacts of climate change, have resulted in numerous impacts on water resources. As a result, their availability in the long term is at the risk of becoming unsustainable. Decision making on how to manage, allocate and use them has become progressively complex as diversity of views on what should be sustained and how, and over what period of time, differ across sectors and actors, and vary over time.

Resolving Water Conflicts Workbook focuses on social and environmental sustainability. It is rich in examples and reflections. It analyses in depth how institutions, legal and policy instruments, as important as they are in terms of governance, are many times slow to respond, with the consequent negative impacts on disadvantaged populations. The case studies are robust and present in detail short- and long-term effects of human activities and institutional responses on specific sectors of society and on the environment on which their livelihoods depend. The text transmits the urgency to develop frameworks to manage water resources that are more comprehensive such as river basin management and integrated water resources management. As certain as this is, these paradigms have not delivered so far what has been expected from them because of political, policy and administrative constraints in most of the world. Time has come for institutions to identify the advantages of these paradigms in practice, the reasons why their implementation has been hampered, and either addressed the concerns or change the paradigms to more practical ones.

Finally, the workbook emphasizes the relevance of using water conflict management frameworks to build trust, improve understanding of common problems and possible alternatives as well as encourage collaboration. It is rightly argued that this is essential to move forward and transform conflicts into opportunities for cooperation. Approaches that are more comprehensive and that take into consideration broader aspects of development are needed.

Dr. Cecilia Tortajada,
Professor in practice, School of Interdisciplinary Studies,
University of Glasgow, UK
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TABLE OF CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION by Lynette de Silva
WATER: THE IRREPLACEABLE RESOURCE
        A River and Its Tributaries
        The Geopolitics of Water
        The Challenges of a Rapidly Changing Climate
THE BOOK'S STRUCTURE
REFERENCES

CHAPTER 1: THE CONSEQUENCE OF A DECISION AND THE CASE OF THE HIGH ASWAN DAM by Chris Maser
THE INVIOLABLE RULES OF DECISION MAKING
        Rule 1—Everything Is A Relationship
                Intra-personal
                Inter-personal
                Between People and the Environment
                Between People in the Present and Those of the Future
        Rule 2—All Relationships Are All Inclusive and Productive of An Outcome
        Rule 3—The Only True Investment Is Energy from Sunlight
        Rule 4—All Relationships Involve a Transfer of Energy
        Rule 5—All Systems Are Based on Composition, Structure, and Function
        Rule 6—All Relationships Have One or More Trade-offs
        Rule 7—All Systems Have Cumulative Effects, Lag Periods, And Thresholds
        Rule 8—Change Is An Irreversible Process of Eternal Becoming
        Rule 9—Systemic Change is Based on Self-Organized Criticality
        Rule 10—Dynamic Disequilibrium Rules All Systems
        Rule 11—Success or Failure Lies in the Interpretation of An Event
        Rule 12—People Must Be Equally Informed if They Are to Function, As a Truly Democratic Society
        Rule 13—We Must Consciously Limit Our "Wants"
        Rule 15—Nature, Environmental/Cultural Wisdom, and Human Well-Being Are Paramount
        Rule 16—Every Legal Citizen Deserves the Right to Vote
        Rule 17—This Present Moment, the Here and Now, Is All We Ever Have
THE ASWAN HIGH DAM—A CASE STUDY ILLUSTRATING THE IRREVERSIBLE CONSEQUENCES OF A SINGLE DECISION
CONCLUSION
QUESTIONS
REFERENCES

CHAPTER 2 WATER CONFLICT TRANSFORMATION by Lynette de Silva
INTRODUCTION
        Degrees of Remedy
        Interests
CONFLICT TRANSFORMATION
        Adversarial stage
        Reflective stage
        Integrative stage
        Action Stage
        Transformative processes and examples
CONCLUDING REMARKS
EXERCISES
REFERENCES

CHAPTER 3: EVOLVING WATER GOVERNANCE UNDER UNITED STATES LAW by Holly v. Campbell
ABSTRACT
INTRODUCTION
SYNOPSIS OF WATER GOVERNANCE IN THE UNITED STATES
        Legal Rights to the Use of Surface and Groundwater
        The Focus and Purpose of the U.S. Clean Water Act
        The Watershed Approach Framework Milestone
        Elaborating an Advanced Watershed Approach through 2030—Three Pillars of Sustainability
CASE STUDY
        The Chesapeake Bay Watershed
        Lessons Learned
CONCLUSION
QUESTIONS
REFERENCES

CHAPTER 4: DIFFERENT SYSTEMS, COMMON CONFLICTS by Holly V. Campbell and Liliana Pimentel
ABSTRACT
INTRODUCTION
WATER MANAGEMENT IN BRAZIL
CASE STUDIES FROM BRAZIL
        The Water Crisis in the Sãn Paulo Metropolitan Region (2014-2016)
                Context
                Conflict
                Main Results and Lessons Learned
        The Water Crisis in the Federal District (2016-2018)
        The Water Crisis in the São Paulo Metropolitan Region (2014-2016)
                Context
                Conflict
                Main Results and Lessons Learned
WATER MANAGEMENT IN THE UNITED STATES
        Florida v Georgia
                Context
                Conflict
                Main Results, Lessons Learned, and Lessons Suggesting Design of New Approaches

        Mexican Water Treaty of 1944
                Context
                Conflict
                Main Results and Lessons Learned
CONCLUSION
QUESTIONS
REFERENCES

CHAPTER 5: RIGHTS OF NATURE: THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WATER AND PEOPLE by Cameron La Follette
OVERVIEW
HOW WILL THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN NATURE AND HUMANS WORK?
        Case Study: New Zealand's Whanganui River
        Case Study: Grant Township and Highland Township, Pennsylvania
                Highland Township
                Grant Township
        The Legal System and the Rights of Nature
MOVING BEYOND RELATIONSHIPS OF DESTRUCTION WITH RIVERS
        Local and Worldwide River Protection
        If I Am the River and the River is Me: Water Conflict and Ecological Governance
CONCLUSION
QUESTIONS AND EXERCISES
REFERENCES

CHAPTER 6: INTERTRIBAL FISHING CONFLICTS AND FEDERAL OBSTRUCTION IN OREGON by David G. Lewis
INTRODUCTION
CHANGE COMES
CONTEMPORARY ERA
        Grand Ronde
        Contemporary Water Issues
                Finding Good Faith in a Middle Ground
                Why would the other tribes need to fish at Willamette falls?
QUESTIONS
REFERENCES

CHAPTER 7: THE ROLE OF WOMEN IN WATER MANAGEMENT IN THE DESCHUTES RIVER BASIN OF OREGON (USA) AND THE FERGHANA VALLEY OF CENTRAL ASIA by Jaclyn Best and Jahan Taganova
INTRODUCTION
DEFINING GENDER
DEFINING CONFLICT AND WATER CONFLICTS
        Is the water sector a man's domain?
        Where Are the Women, and Why do We Need Them? A Lack of Data and Representation
INVISIBLE WOMEN OF THE DESCHUTES RIVER BASIN
        Geography of the Deschutes River Basin
        Styles of Water Management in the American West and the Deschutes River Basin: Shifting Away from the Masculine
DO WOMEN FORGE PEACE IN THE FERGHANA VALLEY?
        Water Management in the Ferghana Valley: From Kingdoms to Independence from the Soviet Union
        Where are the Women? Emancipation of Central Asia's Women
        Transboundary Water Conflict Resolution: Whose Domain?
WHAT CAN WE LEARN FROM THE DESCHUTES RIVER BASIN AND FERGHANA VALLEY?
HOW CAN WE MOVE FORWARD TRANSFORMING CONFLICTS USING A GENDERED APPROACH?
CONCLUSION
QUESTIONS
REFERENCES

CHAPTER 8: WATER INSECURITIES IN TWO AFRICAN AMERICAN COMMUNITIES by Lynette de Silva
INTRODUCTION
THE VANPORT CASE STUDY
        The Significance of a Location
        Wartime
        Waters Leading Up to that "Horrific Day"
        The plight
        Transformative Analysis
                Mapping the Vanport Situation
                Relating the water conflict framework to Vanport
        Discussion
                Trust building
                Listening
THE FLINT CASE STUDY
        Emergency
        "Hydro-crimes "
        Where does this leave Flint residents?
        Transformative Water Conflict Analysis
                Strengthening Water Rights in Flint
        Discussion
CONCLUSION
QUESTIONS AND EXERCISES
REFERENCES

CHAPTER 9: A GLOBAL WATER SOLUTION: AN EXAMPLE OF THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOAL TARGET 6.5 by Melissa McCracken
INTRODUCTION
THE GLOBAL WATER CRISIS
SUSTAINABILITY AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: FOUNDATIONAL CONCEPTS FOR GLOBAL SOLUTIONS
        Sustainability
        Sustainable Development
THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOAL FRAMEWORK
        Sustainable Development Goal 6 on Water and Sanitation
THE FOUR STAGES OF WATER CONFLICT TRANSFORMATION FRAMEWORK
        Indicator 6.5.2 Methodology
        Indicator 6.5.2 and the Four Stages of Water Conflict Transformation
CASE STUDY: INDICATOR 6.5.2 AND UGANDA
        Background on Uganda's International Shared Waters and Cooperation
        Calculating SDG Indicator 6.5.2 for Uganda
        Applying the Water Conflict Transformation framework to the Case Study
SUMMARY
FURTHER READING
EXERCISES
REFERENCES

CHAPTER 10: RELIGIOUS WORLDVIEWS, ENVIRONMENTAL VALUES, AND CONFLICT-MANAGEMENT TRADITIONS by Josiah J. Shaver
INTRODUCTION
        Building on Shared Values
        Ancient Conflict Management Principles with Modern Applications
        Trying to Summarize the Complexity of Religions
NATIVE AMERICAN TRADITIONS
        Familial Environmental Ethics
        Community Environmental Ethics
        Conflict Resolution Traditions of the Native Americans
                Peacemaking Circles: Equality and Agreement
                Connections to the Four Stages
        Conclusion
HINDUISM
        Introduction
        Reincarnation, Karma and Hindu Environmental Principles
        Historical and Modern Hindu Environmental Movements
                The Chipko Movement Tree Huggers
                Climate Change and Modern Actions
        Hindu Conflict Resolution Teachings
                The Four Steps of Conflict Progression
                Divine Sandals in the Room
                Vishnu's Four Stages
        Conclusion
BUDDHISM
        Environmental Teachings of the Buddha
        Ecological Momentum in Contemporary Buddhism
                From the Dalai Lama
                Saving Trees by Ordaining Them
                The Time to Act is Now: A Buddhist Declaration on Climate Change
        Buddhist Nonviolence and Conflict Resolution Paradigm
                Extreme Nonviolence: A Teaching
                Intense Reflection
                The Story of a War Averted with a Question
        The Four Stages and the Four Noble Truths
        Conclusion
ISLAM
        Environmental Standards from the Qur'an
        Words of the Prophet
        Islamic Declaration on Climate Change
        Conflict Management Dynamics in Islam
        Four Stages within Islam
        Conclusion
JUDAISM
        Judeo-Christian Foundations in Environmental Ethics
                The Role of Humans: A Question of Interpretation
                Biblical Stewardship Environmental Ethics
                Further Jewish Teachings on Nature
                Jewish Response to Climate Change
        Judaism and Conflict Management
        Judaism and the Four Stages of Water Conflict Transformation
        Conclusion
CHRISTIANITY
        A Christian View of Nature: Scriptural Foundation with Judaism
                Catholic Statements on Environmental Issues
                Evangelical Voices on Climate Action
        Christian Conflict Resolution Principles
                Seven Seeds of Peace: Resolving Conflict with Pastor Rick Warren
        The Four Stages Applied to Christianity
        Conclusion
EPILOGUE
REFERENCES

CONCLUSION by Lynette de Silva

APPENDIX
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Editor's Note for the "CRC Press" Book Series, Social-Environmental Sustainability:

The last winter I snowshoed in the high Cascade Mountains of western Oregon, was in 1958, I was 19 years old. I spent several days and nights living in a cave I made in a bank of snow at the edge of North Santiam Lake. The snow on the lake's surface was 15 feet deep, and the bank was at least five feet deeper. That was 63 years ago. From 1970 to 2019, 11 stations in the snow-telemetry-observation network of Oregon, Washington, and Idaho had decreasing accumulations.

Analyzing 50 years of data shows snow amounts declined 91% at 11 stations in the Northwest during the fall. Snowfall increased 36% at 7 [stations] during the winter, but decreased 64% again during the spring season. This is a region where accumulated winter snowpack in the mountainous areas is essential to the annual water cycle, as snowmelt supplies freshwater that sustains local watersheds through the drier summer months. A growing share of the West has endured worsening droughts since the beginning of the 20th century, straining water supplies and increasing the risk for wildfires.

A 2019 study by researchers at Portland State University found that snowfall frequency in the mountainous Northwest declined the most at low- and mid-elevation sites. The study also projected that by the end of the 21st century, many of the sites in the [snow-telemetry-observation] network will experience more precipitation falling as rain than snow.¹,²

And, it is not just in the northwestern United States. Glaciers are melting all over the world. The Arctic is warming faster than anywhere else on Earth, and Antarctica ice shelves are calving into the ocean. The marine world is changing dramatically, shifting its currents, thereby altering the wind patterns that affect global climate and, consequently, the amount and distribution of rain and snow—the effect of which is the amount of water available for human use throughout different parts of the world.³ These fluctuating changes are not only irreversibly affecting local and regional river basins but also stimulating conflicts among differing social interests and progressively threatening the wellbeing of all generations. In addition to the growing decline of and unpredictability in the amount of available water, the incalculable degradation of water quality through worldwide chemical pollution, among other forms, is accelerating the limitation of good-quality, usable water—increasing the contention over who gets to use what water, how much, and for how long.

The resolution of such a conflict is based on the art of serving people, with disparate points of view, to find enough common ground to ease their fears, sheath their weapons, and listen to one another for their mutual good, which ultimately translates into social-environmental sustainability for all generations. If those in opposition can be helped to understand and move toward the heart of their agreement, the differences entrenched in their quarrel are more easily negotiated. Ultimately, it is necessary for the participants to formulate a shared vision toward which to strive, one that accommodates the personalized perceptions for everyone's long-term benefit. Only then can the barriers among those concerned be dissolved into mutual respect, acceptance, and potential friendship—only then is a conflict truly resolved.

This workbook examines human activities that strain the planet in terms of demands on land, water, energy, and other resources; climate change that forces people to undertake mass movements in search of better living conditions; and humanity's contributions to extinction of species and degradation of ecosystems. The complexities of these challenges are assessed to bring about more sustainable, effective, and efficient water solutions for an improved ecological and socioeconomic future. Given the impacts of climate change and its particular consequences on vulnerable communities, the workbook explores ways in which social difference, political power, and discrimination disproportionately impact nature, as well as women, indigenous peoples of the Americas, and other marginalized communities.

Through a water conflict management framework designed to bolster collaborative skills, the book opens out a middle way to build trust and consensus through enhanced understanding; case study analysis; and hands-on application. An overview of the chapters is provided in the Introduction. Business leaders, policy makers, mediators, and other professionals, as well as academics and university students, can benefit greatly from this book.

REFERENCES
1. The Case of Shifting Snow. 2020. Research Brief by Climate Central. https://www.climatecentral.org/news/report-the-case-of-the-shifting-snow (accessed March 2, 2021.)
2. Catalano, A.J., Loikith, P.C., and Aragon, C.M. 2019. Spatiotemporal Variability of Twenty–First–Century Changes in Site–Specific Snowfall Frequency Over the Northwest United States. Geophysical Research Letters, 46 (16):10122–10131.
3. Maser, Chris: Interactions of Land, Ocean and Humans: A Global Perspective. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. 2014. 308 pp.

Chris Maser, Series Editor
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Endorsements:

"This helpful workbook teases out some of the deep complexities of water conflicts through rich, wide-ranging, international case studies. Anchored by 'four stages of water conflict transformation,' the authors offer us a useful framework to expand our thinking about and responses to water conflicts. The holistic focus on relationships, culture, governance, and sustainability makes this an especially useful book for practical application as well as academic study."

Dr. Scott Jones,
Co-Director, Mind the Gap Research & Training, Scotland;
Associate Professor of Peace and Conflict Studies, Bjørknes University College, Oslo

"Water physically flows from upstream to downstream, from one farmer to another, and from one country to another. Water also flows conceptually across value systems that differ between individuals, societies and states. The authors of this inciteful volume provide multiple case studies demonstrating how dispute resolution practices, conflict management frameworks, and indigenous knowledge can be used to turn the complexity of water's physical and conceptual flow into healthier outcomes for societies and the water environments on which they depend."

Dr. Mark Giordano,
Professor, Georgetown University School of Foreign Service,
Washington, D.C.

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